Saturday, December 09, 2006

Fidel Castro and Ernest Hemingway were not friends

It is a common conceit that Fidel Castro and Ernest Hemingway were friends.

By Larry Daley

It is a common conceit[1] that Fidel Castro and Ernest Hemingway were friends. The photograph[2] of the two together after a sail fish fishing competition May 12 to 15th of 1960 at the Miramar Yatch Club[3] which Castro “won” is usually cited as evidence of this. This is the official Cuban government take on the matter, and all other opinions are suppressed.[4] Cuban archives are only commonly made available to those believed to be sympathetic to that government.[5] One notes that the present Cuban government achieves a considerable profit from the Hemingway trade.[6]

Castro had never fished sailfish before and he was accompanied by Ernesto Ché Guevara, Celia Sánchez, the boat’s captain Julio Arocha, Manuel Bell Gorgas (commonly known as Blakamán[7]), a game fishing instructor from the Industria Nacional de la Industria Turistica (INIT), who was a member of the Castro team.[8] This last source reports that some experienced fishermen were “amazed” at Castro’s beginner’s luck. Hemingway’s sail-fishing boat “Pilar”[9] was usually kept in the tiny bay of Cojima which is east of Havana. This implies that the Pilar either was sailed to the western Havana suburb of Miramar or it went by road, most probably via the new tunnel under Havana Bay and then along the best traffic route, on the shore line four-lane, high-speed, Malecón avenue.[10] The possible significance of this route is discussed later in this article.

It is widely stated that Mary Hemingway, Hemingway’s fourth wife and widow, donated his property to Cuba in 1962.[11] However, exile sources declare that Hemingway met with the Cuban leader at the fishing competition primarily trying to convince Castro not to confiscate his property.[12]

Meyers states that Hemingway’s property was officially confiscated after his death.[13] However, Meyers also notes that Hemingway long feared that this would happen, despite the support that he had given Castro.[14] Myers, seemingly over looks the story “The Shot” and its significance in this regard, although he does mention others of similar title.

These fears of confiscation were very rational. Hemingway left Cuba in July 1960[15] while the massive confiscations were beginning but before the October 14th 1960 “La Ley de la Reforma Urbana.”[16] However even as early a February 7, 1959 expropriations of land without cash payments, were authorized, and the death penalty legalized.[17] Castro, almost immediately after arriving in Havana on January 8th 1959,[18] started the process of confiscating all property on the Island.[19] Although remaining residents were granted usufruct, all residences belonged to the state and use of such property was dependent on the residents’ obedience to the mandates of the Cuban state.[20]

This left private property rights in great jeopardy as the Cuban authorities became more and more aggressive and greedy[21]. It slowly became clear that the Castro government, following its own interpretation of marxist[22] guidelines wanted possession of everything.[23] All this is consistent with the fact that Hemingway left most of his property, books and papers in Cuba.[24] This was usual in such confiscations because household items were inventoried and held on site by the Cuban government agency “Ministerio de Recuperación de Bienes Malversados.”[25]

As Hemingway must have known before he left Cuba, his putative plea to retain his property would prove hopeless. One of the dictator’s marxist supporters admiringly states; Fidel Castro even took his mother’s lands.[26] This same supporter lauds the “benevolence” of Raul Castro, in that despite Lina Ruz’s armed resistance she was “allowed” to stay under the protection of eldest sibling Ramón who was charged by the “Revolución” with general oversight of the agriculture of the region.

Hemingway’s professional code was not always ethical.[27] And much of what Hemingway wrote, often horrendous in its callousness and betrayal,[28] is taken from real life.[29] For instance: Jesus Enrique Lister Forján[30] [31] is one of the three “peasant leaders” referred to by the character “Robert Jordan” in Ernest Hemingway’s for “For Whom the Bell Tolls.[32]

Strangely enough Spanish and USSR personnel including this same general Enrique Lister, as he is commonly known, had shown up again in Cuba at that time. Lister had gone to Cuba[33] in 1927 during the Machado Dictatorship and joined the Cuban Communist Party. In late 1959 Castro's intelligence chief Ramirito Valdés had contacted the KGB in Mexico City[34]. The Soviets sent one hundred mostly Spanish-speaking advisors, including Enrique Lister, to organize the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution in Cuba.[35] Later many more were sent.[36] The founding of this committee is officially dated September 28, 1960[37] which means Lister must have arrived in Cuba before that date, thus it could be that Hemingway’s final departure from Cuba in July 1960[38] and Lister’s arrival overlapped.

Arrozarena’s date [39] for the arrival of a Basque contingent in Cuba, June 31 1961, does not mean that Hemingway would not have met Lister again, since the Arrozarena cite refers only to a small of Basque’s among the far larger numbers of the “International Brigades.[40]” Lister most probably had arrived far earlier (as indicated in by Fernandez see cite 25). Personal memories recall such personal in public view at the FOCSA building in April of 1961. Given the circumstance of gossip[41] of the time news of Lister’s arrival almost certainly would have reached Hemingway who was always “well connected,” and the presence of Lister plus the 4th of March 1960 explosion of La Coubre (e.g. see Haverty, citation) must certainly have alerted him to what was going on.

One notes with interest that this Hemingway novel’s protagonist “Robert Jordan’s” grandfather is said to have fought in the U.S. Civil War. This may well refer to the Confederate General Thomas Jordan, a former U.S. Army officer who became a Confederate colonel, and started an embryonic spy network in Washington.[42] Thomas Jordan was also general of Mambí forces in the Cuban Ten Year’s War, who used almost suicidal assault tactics that grandfather Calixto Enamorado wrote so critically about in his 1917 novel “Tiempos Heróicos. Persecución.”[43]

The suicide of “Robert Jordan’s” father, as well as that of Hemingway’s own father[44], resembles that of great grandfather Major General Calixto Garcia’s (Calixto Enamorado’s father) own attempt at suicide to avoid capture.[45] [46] In support of this one notes Hemingway’s familiarity with Cuba where General Garcia Iñiguez was, and to some extent still is, a major national hero.

General Garcia’s magnificent, twice life size and then new, equestrian statue showing the scar of the general’s attempted suicide to escape capture, was commissioned to US sculptor Felix Weldon and architect Elbert Peets; construction was completed in Batista’s time but it was inaugurated in 1959.[47] This large monument placed at Malecón and Calle 6 could not have escaped Hemingway’s routes in Havana and its observation and must have impinged on his memory. Dramatic monument not only has twenty-four bronze plaques around the statue narration Garcia's 30-year struggle for Cuban independence,[48] but it is located[49] on the water front main highway close to the former Plaza de la República now known as La Plaza de la Revolución. Thus if Hemingway ever went to Miramar by road he must certainly have seen it. Contemplation of this statue, even in brief passing, surely found sad resonance in Hemingway’s unfortunate family history of war and suicide.[50].

The Hemingway story “The Shot[51],” as pointed out previously by others,[52] has hallmark descriptions of killings attributed to Fidel Castro. This short story seems to be amalgamation of several of these killings certainly including that of Manuel (Manolo) Castro del Campo, a government official unrelated to Fidel Castro Ruz, and probably that of Oscar Fernández Caral.[53] Fernández Caral, who had proclaimed himself as witness to the Manolo Castro murder was promptly murdered by Castro and his colleagues.[54] [55]

Although Manolo Castro had a violent past[56] [57] Hemingway was no stranger to violence and violent people, and found such people sources of inspiration.[58] Thus, Hemingway found such as some of his friends and fellow authors descriptions of Kenneth Tynman’s disgust at visit to his restaurant table by executioner Herman Marks[59] [60] merely amusing.[61]

Manolo Castro, had been close enough to Hemingway to allow this author to referee a boxing match held President Grau’s time in the main arena of Havana the old Palacio de los Deportes.[62] In addition, Hemingway, like Manolo Castro, was partial to ideologies of the left, and was given to support these even in his journalistic reports and behaviors.[63]

Hemingway, although offering public support to Castro, privately feared the loss of his property (see above) and was loyal to the U.S. [64] Hidden in Hemingway’s complex personality was a long enduring dislike of Castro dating back to the killing of Manolo Castro (see above). It would be illogical to propose that these two enormous egos were not rivals at some level. This dislike[65] of Fidel Castro can be illustrated by the first paragraphs of Hemingway’s “The Shot.”[66] Apparently this dislike was mutual since Fidel Castro likewise disliked Hemingway considering him to be a “yanqui cagón.”[67]

This Hemingway short story starts:

“We were finishing lunch by the swimming pool. It was a hot day for Cuba because the breeze had fallen off, but the pool was cool where the trees had made shade over it and it was cool and next to cool if you went deep enough into it at the deep end.”

“I didn’t see these two Negroes[68] until they were by the table where it was set under the arbor to be in the shade. I had been watching the reflection of the bamboos and the Alamo trees in the pool and when I looked up and saw these two by the table I knew that I was slipping. They had come up a piece of dead ground but I should have seen them come around the corner of the shower house.”

“One was very big and tough with a face I remembered.[69] The other was his guardaspaldas. That is the man who keeps you from being shot in the back. He doesn’t have to big, very big and he is always a little behind and he turns his head like a pitcher watching a man on first with no one out. Guardaspaldas, it is usually shortened to that, get the same kind of neck that pitchers[70] get and that fighter pilots are afflicted with if they stay alive if there is a real fighter opposition in the air.”

“This man, who looked like an oversized Joe Walcott, had a letter to me. It was from himself. He was a little hot, it seemed, and he needed to go to a certain South American Republic very fast.[71] He was unjustly accused of being in the second of two cars which had killed two and wounded five in what is known as the old one-two. The first car comes by the house of friends whom they have checked are there and wish to surprise. They shoot the house up as a gesture[72]. The friends swarm out, unhurt and bearing arms and full of defiance, and the second car comes by with the mains and wipes them out.[73] This man was falsely accused, he explained to me,[74] of being one of the mains.[75] He had been falsely accused many times. But he claimed to be a friend of a friend of mine who was shot dead in the street with thirty-five cents in his pocket, and never a nickel stolen and no personal fortune, while he held a government post. I suppose you know gentlemen, what that means in these times.”

“This friend who had been shot had been a beautiful backfield man on the local university team. He was a fine quarterback and he could play halfback. He (Manolo Castro) was director of sports of the republic when he died.[76] No one has ever been punished for the killing. This friend of mine was supposed to be a little triggery; but I never heard of him killing the wrong people. Anyway, when they killed him he had thirty-five cents, no money in any banks, and he was unarmed.”

“So what this man, who claimed to be his friend, and whose face I remembered, needed was $500. I told him it was two. I hope he doesn’t get falsely accused of anything before he emigrates.”

“So with a background of this sort of shooty-shooty, I’m going to write 2,000 words about an antelope hunt where you kill one antelope that can’t shoot back. …”…

Unfortunately for Hemingway, Castro apparently recognized himself, despite the “blackface,” in the story and being an unforgiving long long memoried sort[77], probably enjoyed taking the house at La Vigia. However, Castro always cautious never revealed publicly anything in this regard. Whether this loss of Hemingway’s beloved residence, manuscripts and papers contributed to his suicide can only be speculated.

Castro’s propagandists continue to cover up the confiscation of La Vigía, (see footnote 4), alleging the Hemingway residence was a “donation to the revolution.” The basis for this claim is that Hemingway’s widow Mary was forced to sign papers in this regard in return for being allowed to gather a few items from the house (see footnote 7).

Larry Daley, copyright@2006


Agencia de Noticias Xinhua de China 2006 (accessed 12-4-06) Celebran en Cuba aniversario de Comités de Defensa de la Revolución, Patrimonio Cultural y Natural de China September 29, 2006 “Constituidos el 28 de septiembre de 1960, los CDR surgieron en respuesta al reclamo popular de unirse para enfrentar los continuos ataques, sabotajes e intentos por detener la revolución que triunfó el 1 de enero de 1959”

Aguila, Arnoldo 2003 (accessed 11-3-06) Fidel explica porqué asesinó y condenó. “...según otros testigos de una parte que no pude oír, se refirió a los fusilados como "tres negritos",,,,”

Andrew, Christopher and Oleg Gordievsky 1990. KGB: The Inside Story. HarperCollins, New York ISBN 0060166053. p. 467. “In July 1959, Castro’s Intelligence Chief, Major Ramiro Valdes, began secret meetings with the Soviet Ambassador and KGB residency. The KGB dispatched over a hundred advisers to overhaul Castro’s security and Intelligence system, many drawn from the ranks of los niños, the children of Spanish Communist refugees who had settled in Russia after the Civil War. One Spanish Republican veteran, Enrique Lister Farjan, organized the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution, a Cuban neighborhood watch system to keep track of counter revolutionary subeversion. Another, General Alberto Bajar, set up a series of guerrilla training schools.”

Anonymous (accessed 10-24-06) Biografía concisa del tirano Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz Historia de Cuba (Datos adicionales) Circuito Sur “Ya asentado en la Universidad, participa en cuantas protestas callejeras se producen siendo presidente Grau, y pasado un tiempo se une a uno de los llamados grupos "gatillo alegre". Estos grupos de "gatillo alegre" peleaban entre si por el control de la Federación Estudiantil Universitaria (FEU), y Fidel Castro se unió a uno llamado Unión Insurreccional Revolucionaria, dirigido por Emilio Tró. Aquí es donde comienza ha definir el actual tirano su espíritu pandillero, gangsteril.”….“Al pasar este episodio de Cayo Confite, los grupos gangsteriles recrudecen sus acciones, y así vemos como el jefe del grupo al que pertenecía Fidel Castro, Emilio Tró cae abatido por las balas junto a cuatro de sus colaboradores en el Municipio de Marianao. Después Manolo Castro, el líder de la Federación Estudiantil Universitaria (FEU) y opositor de Tró, y Fidel, al estar parado en la acera del "Cinecito" de La Habana es asesinado de varios disparos. En el entierro de Manolo Castro dos oradores Alfredo Yabur, y Eduardo Corona acusaron de la muerte del líder estudiantil entre otros a Fidel Castro, y Oscar Fernández Caral policía de la Universidad interrumpió varias veces gritando que Fidel era el asesino. Después los dos oradores en el entierro de Manolo Castro se hicieron súbditos de Fidel Castro, y al triunfo de la revolución, bajo la presidencia de Dorticós el Tirano nombra a Yabur Ministro de Justicia, y a Corona representante ante la UNESCO. Corona acompañaba a Manolo Castro cuando el atentado en "El Cinecito", y por milagro salió ileso. Otro de los conocidos hechos gangsteril en los que participó el actual Tirano, fue cuando asesinaron a Justo Fuentes Clavel, vicepresidente de la FEU, y miembro de la Unión Insurreccional Revolucionaria al salir de una emisora de radio, y que por casualidad ese día no lo acompañaba el también miembro de la UIR Fidel Castro. En represalia por este asesinato, Fidel Castro se parapeta en el techo de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad portando una escopeta, y cuando ve a Leonel Gómez, dirigente del Instituto de La Habana, y señalado como el que baleó a Justo Fuentes, le hace varios disparos, los cuales no hirieron a Fuentes. Debido a ese hecho de la muerte de Fuentes, Fidel Castro en compañía de Rafael del Pino le hicieron un atentado al entonces Senador Rolando Masferrer Rojas, en las calles de La Habana, cuando este viajaba en su automóvil, a lo que Masferrer respondió haciendo que Fidel y del Pino salieran corriendo para refugiarse en el convento de las Ursulinas. El otro suceso conocido, es el asesinato de Oscar Fernández Caral, masacrado a tiros frente a su hogar, y que aun con vida, le dijo a los presente que Fidel Castro fue el que le disparó. Al siguiente día 5 de julio de ese año 1948, la prensa se hacia eco del hecho, y el periódico "El Crisol" de La Habana, destacaba las palabras de Fernández Caral en su titular. Oscar Fernández Caral fue el que vio a Fidel Castro en las inmediaciones "Del Cinecito", cuando asesinaron a Manolo Castro de la FEU, y que después lo acusó públicamente en la despedida de duelo.”

Arencibia Cardoso, Pedro Pablo 2005 (accessed 10-24-06) ¡Fidel, el peor de todos ! Cuba Democracia y Vida 20-10-2005 “Una digresión: yo no comparto el criterio de que Fidel estaba en el grupo ejecutor que mató a Manolo Castro, que ya no estaba en la Universidad y era un alto funcionario vinculado al Deporte, aunque sí es muy posible que haya estado vinculado a esa acción. El crimen del sargento de la policía universitaria, por ser un testigo indeseado de ese asesinato, y el intento de matar a Leonel Acosta, que había sido presidente del Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza de La Habana, al que le disparó por la espalda, son solo algunas misiones que, a mi entender, llevó a cabo el muchachón teniendo detrás a la banda a la que pertenecía y en la que él era sencilla y solamente un sicario; a su vez el usó a la banda para ganarse el respeto y la fama de un tipo de ACCION ( ¡un tipo duro!, diríamos hoy, pero esa era la palabra que se usaba en esa época) así como tener cuidada sus espaldas. Sobre el asesinato de Manolo Castro y del sargento de la policía universitaria (asesinato ocurrido delante del hijo de la víctima) y otras acciones” ...” El otro suceso conocido, es el asesinato de Oscar Fernández Caral, masacrado a tiros frente a su hogar, y que aun con vida, le dijo a los presente que Fidel Castro fue el que le disparó.

Arrozarena, Cecilia 2003 El Roble y la Ceiba, Historia de los Vascos en Cuba. Editorial Txalaparta, Tafalla, “Nafarroa” Spain ISBN 848136357X p. 366 “Poco después triunfar de la revolución de Fidel Castro el pidió a Enrique Lister, en el mas estricto secreto, el envío de técnicos españoles. Éramos 24 quienes formábamos aquella primera (sic) y singular expedición, la mayoría matrimonios de niños de guerra. El 31 de junio de 1961 llegamos a las isla tras pasar por Praga, donde nos dieron documentos y identidades falsas, como si fuésemos turistas cubanos…”

Ash, Paul 2006 Communication to Army talk. Date: Sun, 3 Dec 2006 03:38:42 -0800 (PST) From: Paul Ash Reply-To: To: Subject: [ArmyTalk] Re: Cuba Dustup on BBC World Service Today ….Ja, my great uncle lived in Cuba from the early Thirties and rose to quite a senior position on the Cuban railways….When he retired in 1954, he invested his pension and savings into a motel at a place called Gaspar, midway between Havana and Santiago de Cuba. Life was pretty good for him and his Cuban wife, and their little herd of cows…..When Castro took over, the first thing the government took was the motel (they let him and Caterina live on in one of the rooms). Then they took his cows, except one, and most of the land. Finally they confiscated his Toyota Land Cruiser, so he bought a horse and named it "Toyota"….In the end he was reduced to relying on my grandfather here in Jo'burg for monthly supplies of Oxo stock tablets, writing paper, powdered soup, glaucoma medicine, eye ointment, toothpaste ... The parcels would take months to arrive and were routinely pillaged before they got to him….He bore this with great humour and loved Cuba until the day he died ... two days after he relented to pressure from his daughter in Miami who had arranged an exit permit for him and Caterina….Amidst all of this, he was stupified that South Africa had a legally-sanctioned system of discrimination. He just could not understand it. Cheers Paul

Bianchi Ross, Ciro 2005 (accessed 12-3-06) Palmacristazo Juventud Rebelde Domingo, 3 de abril del 2005 G o o g l e's cache of “El monumento a Calixto García, a la entrada de la calle, frente al Malecón, es de mucho realce. Sobre un pedestal de granito negro de Los Andes se alza su estatua ecuestre, en bronce, y el héroe, en traje de campaña y descubierta la cabeza, aparece en actitud de arengar a su tropa. Frente al pedestal se aprecia el escudo de la República. El lugar donde se emplaza imita una antigua fortaleza. Lo rodea un muro de piedra que en su parte interior, y a lo largo de 36 pies, lleva 24 bajorrelieves de bronce con representaciones de los episodios culminantes de la vida de Calixto, y entre ellos, el mapa con sus campañas militares. La estatua del General es de doble tamaño del natural. El monumento es obra de los norteamericanos Weldon y Peets y se inauguró en 1959. Su primera piedra se colocó dos años antes. Costó unos 300 000 pesos.”

Brudevold-Newman, Ben 2006 (accessed 10-31-06) Fidel Castro: From Rebel to El Presidente. NPR August 1, 2006

Cabrera Infante, Guillermo interviewed by Marie-Lise Gazarian Gautier 1980 and 1984, in New York (accessed 10-24-06) An Interview with Guillermo Cabrera Infante. Interviews with Latin American Writers by Marie-Lise Gazarian Gautrier. Dalkey Archive Press, “GCI: This is a typically violent episode from that capitalist democratic period, 1947 and 1948, involving various so-called revolutionary student groups. It is an extraordinary occurrence because the head of the Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios (FEU) (Federation of University Students), Manolo Castro, was killed. This assassination is recounted by Hemingway in one of his famous articles. He used it as the beginning of a piece in which he went on to relate how he hunted antelopes in Idaho or something like that. Hemingway said (Manolo) Castro had been a very honest man because he had died with thirty-two cents in his pocket. He was indeed an honest person, but he had also engaged in violent acts. The group who decided to kill him was the same to which Fidel Castro belonged, the UIR. So there is a great probability that one of the men who murdered Manolo Castro was Fidel Castro, because the leader of the UIR had a very macabre sense of humor. For instance, if the UIR had been after someone for years, they would leave a note on the dead body saying, “Justice is slow, but it comes.” This was the trademark of the UIR. So the fact that one Castro should kill another probably appealed to the dark sense of humor of the UIR’s leader, although it was never conclusively proven that Fidel Castro was one of the killers, only that he knew when the murder was going to occur, and that he was a member of that group. And the reference to “he who had to die” indicates that Manolo Castro had been on the UIR’s death list for quite some time.”

Calvo, Ricardo E. 2002 (accessed 10-5-06) Pensamientos sobre la propiedad privada en la reconstruccion de Cuba. Guaracabuya. “En Mayo de 1959 se creo el INRA (Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria) al firmarse la Ley de Reforma Agraria a traves de la cual solo se permite "poseer" (lease usufructo) un maximo de 30 caballerias de tierra. Cualquier cantidad por encima de esa cifra paso a manos del Estado sin compensacion….. La inviolabilidad del domicilio paso a las paginas de la historia ya que toda y cada una de las residencias eran propiedad del Estado.”

CIA 1961 (accessed 9-11-6) Report on Cuban military potential and internal conditions in Cuba by 30th of n Abstract: Pages:0010 Pub Date: 11/28/1961 Release Date8/31/2001 Case Number: F-1982-00782 By November , although there was strong resistance in Escambray, Castro army and militia strength (exceeds 200,000) and number of repression operatives (50,000) including 25,000 members of “International Brigades”, had increased enormously

Coca, César 2005 (accessed 10-31-06)La historia más triste de Hemingway. Panorama La Verdad Digital 5/05/2005, “Luego, con Mary, se (Valerie Danby-Smith) fue a Cuba, con objeto de catalogar y recuperar cuanto de valor había en Finca Vigía. La casa había sido cedida por el escritor al pueblo cubano. Mary recurrió a Castro para conseguir los permisos para llevarse a EE UU los cuadros y objetos de gran valor que había en la casa. El comandante le dijo que no habría problema, pero pocos días después llegó una funcionaria que les comunicó que todo era propiedad del Estado cubano y ni siquiera Castro podía cambiar la ley. Así que tuvieron que sacar todo de allí de forma ilegal.”

Cuban Government 1959 (accessed 11-3-06) Ley Fundamental de 1959 (7 de febrero de 1959) “En los casos de expropiaciones forzosas que se realizaren para llevar a efecto la Reforma Agraria y el consiguiente reparto de tierras, no será imprescindible que el pago previo de las indemnizaciones sea en efectivo. La Ley podrá establecer otros medios de pago, siempre que reúnan las garantías necesarias…Artículo 25.- No podrá imponerse la pena de muerte. Se exceptúan los casos de los miembros de las Fuerzas Armadas, de los cuerpos represivos de la Tiranía, de los grupos auxiliares organizados por ésta, de los grupos armados privadamente organizados para defenderla y de los confidentes, por delitos cometidos en pro de la instauración o defensa de la Tiranía derrocada el 31 de diciembre de 1958. También se exceptúan las personas culpables de traición o de subversión de orden constitucional o de espionaje en favor del enemigo en tiempo de guerra con nación extranjera”

Daley, Larry communication to Robert Solera Date: Sat, 4 Nov 2006 17:02:12 -0800 (PST) From: Larry Daley To: nellsol1

Cc: Larry Daley Subject: Re: Hemingway paper Robert: Again thank you, again an important detail (Killings by Manolo Castro L.D).....That helps make my point that Hemingway did not pass moral judgment on his friends. I still think that Hemingway and (Fidel) Castro did not get along; and that Fidel Castro, even if he had been friends with Hemingway would never let mere friendship stand in the way of getting something he wanted. Remember the Stalinist (see reference to Stalin L.D.) statement, “gratitude is a vice of dogs." take care be well Larry Daley

Daley, MS (accessed 12-3-06) Narrations of War in Cuba M.S. in preparation

Díaz Escrich, José Miguel 2000 (accessed 11-4-06) as reported in Agujas en el Golfo (II) Deportes Bohemia 2000 as retrieved by Google on Jul 6, 2006 23:01:14 GMT.

Enamorado, Calixto 1917 Tiempos. Heroicos Persecucion. Rambla, Bauza and Company, Havana.

Fernandez, Frank (interviewed by Larry Gambone) 1997 An interview with a Cuban Anarchist. In: ANY TIME NOW 6, 7, Fragment from “At the beginning of the Revolution, 1959-60, some were detained and let go. Augustin Souchy was in Havana in those days and in a conversation with Abelardo Iglesias, Manuel de la Mata Manuel de la Mata and Salvador Garcia, all members of the CNT-FAI during the Spanish Revolution, told his comrades of the recent visit to Cuba by "old friends" from the Spanish and Italian Communist Party, Enrique Lister and the infamous Vittorio Vidale, invited by the Castro regime. Souchy warned them of the inevitable persecution from the new secret police in which Lister and Vidale were involved. The CNT comrades were involved in certain "counter-revolutionary" activities and with the experience of Spain behind them, they knew how to escape on time - with the protection of a Latin American embassy..”

FOIA Log Freedom of Information 2005 (accessed 10-24-06) “18-Oct-05 F-2006-00056 Manuel de Castro (Del Campo) Aka Manolo Castro; Fidel Castro with the Insurrectional Revolutionary Union (UIR); Miguel Murciano and other Cubans ”

Furiati, Claudia (Rosa S. Corgatelli, translator) 2003 Fidel Castro La historia me absolverá. Barcelona, Spain Plaza y Janes ISBN 140008346X This book is at one time a series of justifications for Castro’s ruthless deeds, a guide book for apologists: but it is also a source of interesting information if one reads, with great care, for Castro’s self-serving voice can be heard between the lines.

Garcia Iñiguez, Calixto Obituary Harper’s Weekly, December 24, 1898 p. 1263

García Márquez, Gabriel (accessed 12-4-06) Hemingway, el nuestro. Prolog to Norberto Fuentes “Hemingway en Cuba” “Pero la obra mayor iba a ser el esperpento neoclásico del Capitolio Nacional --copiado piedra por piedra del Capitolio de Washington--, en cuya cantera trabajaba un picapedrero llamado Enrique Lister, que años más tarde sería uno de los generales legendarios de la Guerra Civil Española.”

Gatti, José María 2002 Tantas veces me mataron Radar|Domingo, 17 de Marzo de 2002 “Zoé Valdés, la narradora cubana que escribió toda su obra en el exterior de la isla, sintetiza así la relación: “Hemingway odiaba a Batista y Castro le era poco simpático. A Castro, Hemingway le parecía un buen escritor, pero se cansó de decir que era un yanqui cagón”. Más allá de lo anecdótico, es sabido que Hemingway guardaba por Castro un marcado rencor por la muerte de Manolo Castro, su amigo personal desde la época de la Guerra Civil Española. La historia se remonta al año 1946. Por entonces Fidel era un joven estudiante que buscaba apoyo para convertirse en líder de la Escuela de Leyes de La Habana. Tratando de lograr un acercamiento con Manuel Castro, se pelea con Leonel Gómez, un dirigente estudiantil de las Escuelas Secundarias opositor a Manolo Castro. Fidel hiere a Leonel de un balazo en el abdomen, pero éste milagrosamente se salva. Y Manolo Castro, lejos de apoyar el gesto, le manda un mensaje a Fidel a través de José de Jesús Ginjaume: “Dile a ese tipo que no voy a apoyar a un mierda para presidente de Derecho”. Sin sustento de Manolo Castro y Rolando Masferrer, otro veterano de la Guerra Civil Española, Castro veía desvanecer su intención de incorporarse al Movimiento Socialista Revolucionario (MSR), por eso se acerca a José de Jesús Ginjaume (anticomunista y paracaidista durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial) y a Emilio Tro, otro personaje siniestro que lo protege y perdona por su malograda pelea con Rolando Masferrer. Poco después ocurriría el asesinato de Emilio Tro (el 15 de setiembre de 1947) y la muerte de Manolo Castro (el 22 de febrero de 1948), cuando un grupo de malhechores de la UIR serían los encargados de acribillarlo a balazos en una calle de La Habana Vieja. Lo concreto es que Fidel no mató a Manolo, pero Hemingway siempre le atribuyó la autoría intelectual. Nunca pudieron aclarar el entredicho. Lo más probable es que ninguno de los dos hubiera dado el brazo a torcer. A Castro no le pareció oportuno tratar el tema en el único encuentro que tuvieron y “Papa”, reconocido soberbio, jamás hubiera tomado la iniciativa. Pero como respuesta a su descreimiento, Hemingway escribió “The shot”, un relato donde recurre a su conocida técnica de utilizar a personas de la vida real y enmascararlas literariamente (en este caso, el asesino del cuento era fácilmente reconocible como Fidel).”

Gente Magazine Staff 1958 (accessed 12-9-06) Havana's New Tunnel Gente Magazine American Edition, Havana, January 5, 1958, 1(1) 66A, taken from Cuban Information Archives

Gonzalez Echevarria, Roberto 1980 The Dictatorship of Rhetoric/the Rhetoric of Dictatorship: Carpentier, Garcia Marquez, and Roa Bastos. Latin American Research Review, Vol. 15, No. 3 (1980), pp. 205-228 “For example, the assassination of Manolo Castro is retold by alluding to Hemingway's "The Shot,…"”

Gorry, Conner and David Stanley 2004 Cuba. Lonely Planet Publications; 3rd edition (January 2004) ISBN 1740591208 p. 82 “Another impressive memorial is the Monumento a Calixto García (1959, Malecón and Calle 6) of the valiant Cuban general…Twenty-four bronze plaques around the equestrian statue provide a history of Garcia's 30-year struggle for Cuban independence.”

Gutiérrez Santos, Vicente R. 2005 (accessed 10-24-06) Re: Los hechos de la historia no absuelven a Castro. Foro participativo

Havana Rentals 2006 (accessed 12-3-06) Map of Havana, Cuba!

Haverty, Claire 2006 Memories of the revolution in Cuba. The Day, (New London, CT) August 13, 2006 p. 3E “In the spring of 1960, …"You're next." My husband knew it was time to get his family out of the country…There is the memory of the sound of the French ship, La Coubre, which was delivering munitions for Castro's regime, exploding in Havana Harbor (March 4, 1960 L.D.) and rushing to my children's school to get them out before something happened…. Recollections of hearing the Russian troops singing at the intelligence camp across the Almendares River; turning out the lights to shield the person who had escaped from that same camp; overhearing a short-wave radio;”

Hemingway, Ernest 1938 The denunciation. In: The complete short Stories of Ernest Hemingway1987. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. ISBN 0684186683 pp. 420-428.

Hemingway, Ernest 1940 Reprint edition (July 1, 1995) For Whom the Bell Tolls. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York ISBN 0684803356

Hemingway, Ernest 1951 The Shot. True the men’s magazine. April 1951. pp. 25-28.

Joven Club (accessed 11-3-06) Se aprueba la ley de Reforma Urbana [14/10/1960]. efemerides

Koch, Stephen 2005 The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles. Counterpoint Press (Perseus Books Group), New York ISBN 1582432805

Kowalski, Daniel (accessed 9-5-06) Stalin and the Spanish Civil War Chapter 12. Command Structure and Advisory Apparatus in Spain. I. The Republic Requests Advisors. “The first Soviets to arrive in Spain after the war began, not counting Comintern agents, were journalists, filmmakers, members of the newly established Soviet diplomatic mission, and a handful of military and economic specialists. The first advisors on the scene included the military attaché V. E. Gorev, the naval attaché Nikolai Kuznetsov, 25 the chief military advisor Jan Berzin, the economic (or trade) attaché Artur Stachevskii, and Aleksandr Rodimtsev, who served largely as advisor to Enrique Lister, commander of the Quinto Regimento. 26 This skeletal team arrived ahead of the main influx of Soviet advisors and technicians, and was charged with overseeing Operation X on the Spanish end.”

La Pipa De Hemingway Tuesday, August 01, 2006 Comandante Hemingway, "Papá" Castro 2006 (accessed 10-24-06) “Castro comenzó a mirar su sombra. Después de cuarenta y siete años en el poder debió ceder el mando. Los opositores llaman a esto "solución biológica". Los amigos "un malestar temporario a causa del stress". Fidel Castro y Ernest Hemingway nunca fueron amigos. La historia se ha encargado de resaltar las afinidades entre ambos, pero lo cierto es que solamente se encontraron una vez: el 15 de mayo de 1960. Ese día Fidel fue invitado al Torneo Anual de Pesca de La Habana. Debía ser el juez, pero insistió en competir. Resultado: ganó el trofeo.En el momento en que lo fotografiaron juntos, le confesó a Hemingway su admiración. La fotografía recorrerría todo el mundo como ícono de la revolución. Pero la realidad es otra. Hemingway guardaba por Castro un marcado rencor por la muerte de Manolo Castro, su amigo personal desde la época de la Guerra Civil Española. El 22 de mayo de 1948, un grupo de matones acribilló a balazos en una calle de La Habana Vieja a Manolo Castro. Lo concreto es que Fidel no mató a Manolo, pero Hemingway siempre le atribuyó la autoría intelectual. En privado, Hemingway culpaba a Fidel del asesinato. En cuanto a Fidel, admiraba la literatura de Hemingway, pesó se cansó de decir que era un yanqui cagón. Hoy Hemingway pertenece a la historia. Castro todavía está para contarla.” posted by LA PIPA DE HEMINGWAY @ 2:16 PM 0 comments links to this post

León, Ismael 2001 (accessed 11-3-06) Hemingway navega de nuevo El primer ministro compite y gana (1960) Punto de Vista Places contest between May 12 to 15th of 1960 at the Club Náutico Internacional de La Habana but the prize was awarded at the Miramar yatch Club. Lo acompañaban a bordo sus antiguos compañeros de la guerrilla, Ernesto Ché Guevara y Celia Sánchez, el patrón Julio Arocha y Manuel Bell Gorgas (commonly known as Blakamán), a funcionario del departamento de Caza y Pesca del INIT y compañero de equipo del Primer Ministro. Como las reglas de entonces exigían que los competidores fueran miembros de un club, el Cristal fue adscrito a la flota de la Asociación de los Amigos del Mar….En la prueba de apertura, el Premier ganó -con dos agujas- el trofeo concedido por el Miramar Yacht Club al segundo lugar en puntuación individual. Lo superó ese día M. A. Escoto y lidereó por equipos el Club Náutico Internacional de La Habana. Después de una jornada de receso, reanudan la competencia el sábado 14 y Castro engancha otras dos agujas. Algunos concursantes de larga trayectoria se asombraban de que el jefe de gobierno, un principiante en la pesca mayor, pudiera usar indistintamente las líneas del número 15 y las más finas, del número 9, y tuviera con ambas el mismo éxito.” “Algunos concursantes de larga trayectoria se asombraban de que el jefe de gobierno, un principiante en la pesca mayor, pudiera usar indistintamente las líneas del número 15 y las más finas, del número 9, y tuviera con ambas el mismo éxito…. Después de la premiación, el Primer Ministro cubano y el escritor Ernest Hemingway tuvieron en Barlovento la única conversación de su vida.”

Longacre, Edward G. 2002 (accessed 12-2-06) Espionage in the Civil War. Shotgun's Home of the American Civil War. Source: "Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War" Edited by Patricia L. Faust, Article by Edward G. Longacre. “By the outbreak of the war, neither the Union nor the Confederacy had established a full-scale espionage system or a military intelligence network. The South, however, was already operating an embryonic spy ring out of Washington, D.C., set up late in 1860 or early in 1861 by Thomas Jordan. A former U.S. Army officer, now a Confederate colonel, Jordan foresaw the benefits of placing intelligence agents in the North's military and political nerve center.”

Lozano Moreno, Susana 2001 (accessed 10-31-06) Textos e imágenes de la generación perdida. La adaptación cinematográfica: de Hemingway a Furthman, Faulkner y Hawks. “Memoria”Universidad Departamento de Filología Inglesa, Facultad de Filología Complutense de Madrid. PhD Thesis. p. 300 Footnote cxl

Mascareñas, Dolly 2006 The Raúl I know. Time 168 (7) August 16, 2006 pp. 40-43. “she (Lina Ruz, Fidel Castro’s mother L.D.) met the revolutionaries at the door…”

Matacena, Orestes (accessed 11-4-06) Orestes Ferrara's Florentine Mansion Havana, Cuba

Matos, Orlando 2006 Cuba: Hemingway's famed fishing Boat is getting a facelift. Havana, Nov. 6, 2006 (IPS/GIN) Posted by: "PL" cubaverdad. Wed Nov 15, 2006 3:01 am (PST)

Millman, Joel, 2006 Hemingway's ties to Havana bar help sell mojitos. The Wall Street Journal Friday, December 08, 2006 taken from the Post Gazette (Pittsburgh, Pa.) Saturday, December 09, 2006 “In 2001, Cuba's state-owned tourism conglomerate, El Gran-Caribe SA, began licensing La Bodeguita del Medio franchises abroad, although not in the U.S., where it can't do business because of the U.S. trade embargo imposed in 1962. Charging licensing fees of up to $100,000, plus 5 percent of gross revenues, the Castro regime today takes in at least $500,000 a year through the franchises, according to estimates from franchisees and others in the restaurant industry. Turempleo SA, a state employment agency, sends licensees Cuban waiters, bartenders, cooks and musicians, who jump at the chance to work overseas and earn good tips.”

Montaner, Carlos Alberto 1999 Viaje al corazón de Cuba Journey to the Heart of Cuba. Plaza & Janés Spanish at English translation Algora Publishing, New York; 1 edition (March 15, 2001) ISBN 1892941619 “Fidel pudo, sin muchas dificultades, probar su coartada. Hemingway no lo creyó y escribió un cuento, The shot, sobre su amigo muerto, en el que el asesino está inspirado en Fidel Castro.”

Montenegro, Luisa 2005 (accessed 10-31-06) Once again, Hemingway’s Cuban ghost. Cubanow May, 2005

Meyers, Jeffrey 1999 Hemingway: A Biography. Da Capo Press; 1 Da Capo edition ISBN 0306808900 "p. 1 Both of Hemingway's grandfathers fought in the Civil War and the family was proud of its military traditions”...p. 20 “After his father's suicide Hemingway—who always portrayed himself as a victim and had to find a scapegoat for all his problems— "

Plimpton, George 1977 Shadow box. G.P. Putnam’s Sons. New York. SBN 399119957 pp. 143-149.

Reese, James 2003 (accessed 10-31-06) Publishers synopsis of Hemingway House in Cuba: Finca Vigia- Fictionwise eBook

Rodríguez García, José A. 1905 (accessed 12-3-06) Croquis histórico. Mauricio Casanova, Habana,M1 p. 12 “... queriendo antes morir que caer en manos de sus enemigos, como hizo el general Calixto García (el cual fué maravilla quo no quedara en el sitio,…”

Ros, Enrique 2003 Fidel Castro y El Gatillo Alegre: Sus Años Universitarios (Colección Cuba y Sus Jueces) Ediciones Universal Miami ISBN 1593880065 p. 13 “…El joven (Fidel Castro) que se opone a que se integre el equipo de pelota de la Universidad el mejor jugador por que es negro y la Liga Amateur no le permitiría, entonces, el equipo universitario participar en el campeonato. …” The author discusses the matter in greater length on page 46.

Sanders, Tom 2002 (accessed 11-3-06) Pilgrimage to Cuba - In Search of Hemingway's Ghost. Hemingway Resource Center “In fact, when he left Cuba in July 1960 on an ill-fated trip to the USA then on to Spain, Hemingway could not have known he would never return.”

Simon, Joel 2006 (accessed 12-3-06) Muzzling the Media: How the New Autocrats Threaten Press Freedoms. World Policy Journal, Summer 2006, 23 (2), 51-61. Posted Online August 11, 2006. “ In Cuba, Burma, and Eritrea, dozens of journalists are in jail and the press is a essentially a functional arm of the state.”

Solera, Robert 2006 personal communication Re: Hemingway and Castro hated each other? From: "nellsol1" Date: Thu, November 2, 2006 3:33 pm To: Larry: I cannot find my comments to your sketch. Nevertheless it is: There are incongruous statements that might confuse the reader. Sometimes you don't who is saying what. You should make clear what you say and what somebody else does, using different types of letters or fonts of diverse size. One person is saying that Leonel Gomez was not hurt. The others say (Gomez was L.D). Also his surname is altered in one of the instances. Some others say that Fidel was involved and others that he was not, although it is a proven fact he was in the surrounding area --btw in a cafe sitting with former FEU president --his name escapes my mind now-- the one that went to Bogotá in 1948 when the Bogotazo. Fidel insisted to the waiter to look intensely to his face so he will --the waiter-- remember later on if he was asked about it. The former FEU president said so in a radio interview before he died --he was an architect. Also it has been mentioned that a godson of Paulina Alsina was involved. Also it mentions Manolo Castro as a member a FEU --which he was not at the time and say he was involved in sports when in fact he was Manolo Castro the Head of the Direccion de Deportes and promoter of Cayo Confites --mentioned without the 's'. My suggestion would be that if it does not clarify the story it should be deleted --I mean the quotation from other sources most if based in hearsay. For example Fidel could not veto anyone for been a negro from participating in sports at the University or in the amateur organization --he would not have been blackballed for his race because it was against the law and besides Fidel Castro was a nobody at the time to have the necessary clout to do so. La Liga Amateur de Beisbol had many black people playing in any of the organizations that were part of it. Also MSR is identified as the R standing for something else instead of Movimiento Socialista Revolucionario. How Hemingway could have been asking Fidel to spare him his la Vigia home in early 1960 if he was at the time still in Cuba and very famous and close to Fidel --btw the photo was taken in Miramar Yacht Club. Americans came and went from the States to Cuba and viceversa which was very normal at the time. In the story it is not mentioned that Manolo Castro was a co-owner of Cinecito. I think it is almost impossible that he was shot by people walking because those were by driving shoot outs. More or less that is what I remember of my comments. I am not too sure that. Manolito --Manolo's son which I met-- was present at the time of his death. The other owner of Cinecito was an Spaniard exiled that I met back in 1960 at his home in Havana's outskirts. Also San Rafael and Consulado where Cinecito was it is not Old Havana. Take care! Life is too brief to waste it! Date: Sat, 4 Nov 2006 18:17:16 -0500 From: nellsol1 To: Subject: Re: Hemingway paper Larry never heard about that institute Fish and Game Tourism Institute (INIT) . Besides INIT means Industria Nacional de la Industria Turistica, led at the time by Bilito Castellanos and being his second in command Jesus "Chucho" Montane Oropesa (corr by R.S), later right hand man to Fidel Castro, second in command to Raul Castro at the MINFAR and Minister of Communications, already deceased/ Date: Sat, 4 Nov 2006 18:13:12 -0500 From: nellsol1 To: Subject: Re: Hemingway paper Larry: More. Manolo Castro himself killed Raul Fernandez Fiallo, Catedratico at the Havana University. When he was killed, Carlos Puchol was also killed. According to Mario Rieras' Cuba Libre' Fidel Castro was exonerated from the process by Judge Jose Mario Gispert who received orders "de arriba" to do so. Remember that Gustavo Ortiz Faez --godson to Paulina Grau Alsina-- was involved in the killing. page 164. Life is too brief to waste it!

Spartacus Educational (accessed 12-4-06) Enrique Lister

Stalin, Joseph birth name Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (accessed 11-4-06) “Gratitude is a sickness suffered by dogs.- Joseph Stalin” Basic Quotations

Time staff 1959 The Hemisphere. Chief Executioner Monday, Apr. 13, 1959 ( immediate source Jose Luis Fernandez Wed, 17 May 2006 14:35:00. After taking Holy Week off, Captain Herman Marks, 37, an ex-convict from Milwaukee who fought with Fidel Castro's rebels, got back on the job one night last week. Consulting his written orders, he marched with an armed guard to the death row of Havana's gloomy Cabana Fortress, brought out three former policemen, all convicted in military courts on charges of murder. A short ride in a bus and a jeep brought Marks, the guards, a priest and the prisoners to within 200 feet of an old moat, 20 feet deep and surrounded on three sides by high stone walls. A six-man firing squad waited on a spot worn bare of grass. Under the glare of three floodlights, Marks marched former Batista Police Lieut. Eloy Contreras to a bullet-scarred wall, 36 feet from the firing squad. "Atención!" yelled Marks at 1:13 a.m. "Preparen . . . apunten . . . fuego!" After the volley, Marks stepped up to Contreras' writhing body, fired the coup de grâce with his .45 automaticá had to shoot two more times before his man finally died. Guards took off Contreras' shoes, fingerprinted him, placed him in a plain wooden coffin, and loaded him aboard a hearse for delivery to waiting relatives. By 1:55 a.m., all three prisoners were dead, and Marks's work was ended for the night. "Execution is not a pleasant task," says Castro's chief executioner, "but a necessary one." Later in the week, firing squads through the island shot 13 more men, raising the execution toll that week to 475. "War crimes" courts worked around the clock to clean up "hundreds of pending cases." Marks is no newcomer to unpleasantness. His U.S. police record includes 32 arrests, from Long Beach, Calif. to Bangor, Me. on charges ranging from drunkenness, vagrancy and assault to auto theft and draft dodging. He escaped from a Wisconsin reform school in 1938, from an Ohio jail in 1946, from a California industrial farm in 1950. Finally, he did 3½ years in the Wisconsin pen for raping a 17-year-old girl. Warden John C. Burke remembers him as "a real stinker." Behind this sordid record lies the soul of a romantic. On his left arm Marks wears a tattooed double heart inscribed "Love, Nellie." On his right is an eight-inch snake coiled about a dagger stuck through the top of a skull and bearing Marks's motto, which happens to be "Death Before Dishonor."

Thomas, Hugh 1977 The Spanish Civil War Harper and Row London revised and enlarged edition ISBN 0060142782 p. 274

University of North Carolina Press 2006 (accessed 12-3-06) publicity “blurb” for: Piero Gleijeses Conflicting Missions. Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976 “Gleijeses was even able to gain extensive access to closed Cuban archives--this comprehensive and balanced work sheds new light on U.S. foreign policy and CIA covert operations…. Piero Gleijeses is professor of American foreign policy at the School of Advanced International Studies at the Johns Hopkins University. He is author of Shattered Hope: The Guatemalan Revolution and the United States, 1944-1954.”

Uría, Miguel 2006 Personal communication in phone conversation on 10-27-06), José Adán, a very knowledgeable person on this matter and who is now deceased said in President Grau’s time (1944-1948) that Manolo Castro allowed Hemingway to referee a boxing match old in Palacio de los Deportes.

Vargas Llosa, Álvaro 2005 (accessed 10-30-06) La máquina de matar: El Che Guevara, de agitador comunista a marca capitalista. The New Republic 11/7/2005

[1] ”something that is conceived in the mind; a thought; idea: He jotted down the conceits of his idle hours.” (accessed 1-31-06 from)

[2] Montenegro, 2005

[3] León, 2001

[4] Simon, 2006

[5] e.g. University of North Carolina Press 2006

[6] Millman, Joel, 2006

[7] Díaz Escrich, 2000

[8] La Pipa De Hemingway, 2006

[9] Matos, 2006

[10] Gente Magazine Staff 1958

[11] e.g. Reese, 2003

[12] A “given” among Cuban exiles in Miami

[13] Meyers, 1999 p. 566

[14] Meyers, 1999 pp. 518-519

[15] Sanders, 2002

[16] Joven Club

[17] Ley Fundamental de 1959 (7 de febrero de 1959)

[18] Daley, MS Narrations of War in Cuba M.S. in preparation

[19] e.g. Brudevold-Newman, Ben 2006

[20] La inviolabilidad del domicilio paso a las paginas de la historia ya que toda y cada una de las residencias eran propiedad del Estado” (Calvo 2002).

[21] Ash, 2006

[22] Here the word marxist in lower case refers to practice and not theory.

[23] This everything includes almost all private property from the magnificent Florentine mansion of Italian Independence fighter Orestes Ferrara (see Matacena, 2006), through the farm residence of my grandfather Mambí Brigadier General Calixto (García-Iñiguez) Enamorado, also an independence general, the old jeep of Uncle Marcos García-Iñiguez Ramírez, to my childhood stamp collection.

[24] Lozano Moreno, 2001

[25] Coca, 2005

[26] e.g. Mascareñas, 2006

[27] Koch, 2005

[28] Hemingway, 1938

[29] Thomas, 1977

[30] Kowalski, (accessed 9-5-06)

[31] Spartacus Educational (accessed 12-4-06)

[32] Hemingway, 1940

[33] García Márquez, (accessed 12-4-06)

[34] Andrew, and Gordievsky, 1990.

[35] Fernandez, 1997

[36] Arrozarena, 2003; Haverty, 2006; and personal observations

[37] Agencia de Noticias Xinhua de China 2006

[38] Sanders, 2002

[39] Arrozarena, 2003

[40] CIA, 1961

[41] Haverty, 2006

[42] Longacre, 2002

[43] Enamorado, 1917

[44] Meyers, 1999 discusses the death of Hemingway senior at length, but I could not find mention of General Thomas Jordan nor General Calixto Garcia, who once served under Jordan’s command during the Ten Years’ War in Cuba.

[45] Rodríguez García, 1905

[46] e. g. Harper’s Weekly December 24, 1898

[47] Bianchi Ross, 2005

[48] Gorry and Stanley, 2004

[49] Havana Rentals 2006

[50] Meyers, Jeffrey 1999

[51] Hemingway, Ernest 1951

[52] e.g. Gonzalez Echevarria, 1980; Cabrera Infante, 1880-1984; Gatti, 2002

[53] Ros, 2003 p. 198.

[54] Anonymous (accessed 10-24-06)

[55] Arencibia, 2005

[56] E.g. Ros, 2003 p. 31.

[57] Solera (2006) states in part: “Manolo Castro himself killed Raul Fernandez Fiallo, Catedratico (Professor) at the Havana University. When he was killed, Carlos Puchol was also killed. According to Mario Rieras' Cuba Libre' Fidel Castro was exonerated from the process by Judge Jose Mario Gispert who received orders "de arriba" to do so.”

[58] E.g. a Hemingway's short piece --"the Denunciation' (see Hemingway, 1987) very strongly suggests that Hemingway actively participated betraying victims to the dread execution purges of the communist hatchet man Andre Marty.

[59] Time staff 1959

[60] Plimpton, 1977 pp. 143-149.

[61] Vargas Llosa, 2005

[62] Uría, 2006

[63] Koch, 2005

[64] Myer, p. 518-519

[65] Daley to Solera in reference to killings by Manolo Castro, “That helps make my point that Hemingway did not pass moral judgment on his friends. I still think that Hemingway and Castro did not get along; and that Fidel Castro, even if he had been friends with Hemingway would never let mere friendship stand in the way of getting something he wanted. Remember the Stalinist statement, “gratitude is a vice of dogs."(see Stalin cite).

[66] Hemingway 1951

[67] La Pipa De Hemingway, 2006, “Cagon” means one who defecates a great deal, or “big sh..t”.

[68] This description of skin color seems to be a “beard” used to protect the anonymity of the author of these events (Gatti, 2002). This skin color could also be taken as an insult by Fidel Castro citing a baseball conflict at Havana University (Ros, 2003 pp. 13, 46). Others point out that in this case Castro well may not have been in a position to do this due to his low status in the Havana student government at that time and because this was against the law in Cuba (Solera, 2006). Supporting a bias against Blacks by the until recently leader of the Cuban communist government is his 2003 remark “tres negritos” by which he refers to victims of one of his executions (Aguila, 2003).

[69] While supposedly Hemingway did not meet Fidel Castro before (e.g. León, 2001), other reports suggest that Hemingway hated Fidel Castro for killing Manolo Castro who was a long time friend (Gatti, 2002; Uría, 2006). Such hatred suggests that Hemingway, it they had not met at least knew of and recognized Fidel Castro as is described in “The Shot” where Hemingway writes he knew the approaching shooter who was seeking him out as a source of money.

[70] Another allusion de Castro as a base ball pitcher e.g. see Furati, 2003 p.82

[71] In real life Fidel Castro, left Cuba after the murder of Manolo Castro (February 22, 1948). While still in Cuba Fidel Castro stayed in hiding (Ros, 2006 pp. 181-182), he and very anxious to leave (Ros, 2003 p. 250). He negotiated the funding or the trip from Argentine diplomats in the middle of March (Furiati, 2003, p. 122), and also collected $500 dollars from Miguel Angel Quevedo the director of the foremost Cuban magazine “Bohemia.” Thus it is entirely possible that Castro really received money from Hemingway as well. Castro left Cuba apparently in an Argentine diplomatic vehicle (Ros, 2003 p. 182) to Venezuela and Panama (Furiati, 2003, p. 122; Ros, 2003 p. 182 and others) and on to Colombia arriving there on April 1st, 1948 (footnote 251 of Ros, 2003 p. 188). Here Fidel Castro participated in the riots of the Bogotazo. The money for this trip was provided by Argentine authorities direct to do so by Juan Peron (Furiati, 2003, p. 122; Ros, 2003 pp. 181-182).

[72] In reality the actual scene apparently was the movie theater e.g. “Cinecito” (Gutiérrez, 2005 )then known as the “Resumen” which was at San Rafael and Consulado and where the Movimiento Socialist Popular (MPS) to which Manolo belonged held meetings (Ros 1963, p. 62); however the murder of Oscar Fernández Caral was, as in the Hemingway story in front of his house (Arencibia, 2005)

[73] According to Ros (pp., 167-170), Manolo Castro was tricked into leaving the theater (of which he was partial owner Solera, 2006) to go outside by a communist believed to have been the “fingerman.” According to some the actual attack was done on foot. First the targeted group was fired at and Manolo and the rest dive to the sidewalk. A few moments pass, Manolo stands up. Then the five “main” assassins fire, killing two as in the Hemingway story. The dead were Manolo and a companion. Fidel Castro appears not to have been directly involved, but Hemingway does not seem to believe it. Fidel Castro is known to have wanted Manolo Castro killed (Ros, 2003, p. 170). However, others state Solera (2006) that the attack was done from vehicles as Hemingway describes it,

[74] This appears to refer to the accusations by Oscar Fernández Caral

[75] The “mains” is almost certainly a direct translation, from Cuban usage, of the Spanish word “principales” meaning authors of the deed.

[76] Arencibia, 2005

[77] Personal observations and readings